Baba S., Osakabe N., Natsume M., Yasuda A., Muto Y., Hiyoshi K., Takano H., Yoshikawa T., Terao J. (2005) Absorption, metabolism, degradation and urinary excretion of rosmarinic acid after intake of Perilla frutescens extract in humans. Eur J Nutr 44:1-9 PubMed (15309457)

Urine analysed after enzymatic deconjugation

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Excretion in Urine (%)
Number Dose Multiple Dose Duration Time (hours) Polyphenol Source
Name as described in publication
0 6 24 32 48
1 1 tablet Single Dose 0 1.09 1.47 1.49 1.5
one tablet of perilla extract