Rechner A.R., Spencer J.P., Kuhnle G., Hahn U., Rice-Evans C.A. (2001) Novel biomarkers of the metabolism of caffeic acid derivatives in vivo. Free Radic Biol Med 30:1213-22

Urine analysed after enzymatic deconjugation

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Cumulative Excretion in Urine (mg)
Number Dose Multiple Dose Duration Time (minutes) Polyphenol Source
Name as described in publication
0 110 240 320 600 1200
1 4 g Single Dose 0 0.11 0.2 0.32 0.6 1.47
instant coffee powder in water