Stalmach A., Mullen W., Barron D., Uchida K., Yokota T., Cavin C., Steiling H., Williamson G., Crozier A. (2009) Metabolite profiling of hydroxycinnamate derivatives in plasma and urine after the ingestion of coffee by humans: identification of biomarkers of coffee consumption. Drug Metab Dispos 37:1749-58 PubMed (19460943)

Urine analysed without enzymatic deconjugation

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Cumulative Excretion in Urine (µmol)
Number Dose Multiple Dose Duration Time (hours) Polyphenol Source
Name as described in publication
0 2 5 8 24
1 200 mL Single Dose 0 1.3 3.7 14 20.7
instant coffee