Lehtonen H.M., Rantala M., Suomela J.P., Viitanen M., Kallio H. (2009) Urinary excretion of the main anthocyanin in lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, and its metabolites. J Agric Food Chem 57:4447-51 PubMed (19351112)

Urine analysed without enzymatic deconjugation

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Excretion in Urine (ng/mL)
Number Dose Multiple Dose Duration Time (hours) Polyphenol Source
Name as described in publication
0 0 4 8 12
1 300 g Single Dose 0 97 129 19 2