Urine Plasma  
[polyphenol] source used in experiment Source composition Doses administered Dose duration Total no. subjects Mean urinary excretion (%) Kinetic data Tmax (hours) Mean Cmax (µmol/L) Half life (hours) AUC (µmol/L·h) Kinetic data Reference
human studies
elderberry extract Food administered
12 g Single dose 4 1.18 0.03 Graph a9d716975d07e4a7e41abb50e7f45e82a5a61800f83ed43664b0781ff2caee59 MILBURY 2002
elderberry extract Not applicable 12 g Single dose 4 Detected (unquantified) WU 2002
elderberry extract in water Food administered
12 g Single dose 4 1.19 0.03 2.82 Graph a9d716975d07e4a7e41abb50e7f45e82a5a61800f83ed43664b0781ff2caee59 CAO 2001
freeze-dried black raspberries Food administered
45 g/day 7 days 10 Graph a9d716975d07e4a7e41abb50e7f45e82a5a61800f83ed43664b0781ff2caee59 TIAN 2006
freeze-dried black raspberry Food administered
45 g/day 7 days 11 Graph a9d716975d07e4a7e41abb50e7f45e82a5a61800f83ed43664b0781ff2caee59 2.18 0 6.16 13.02 Graph a9d716975d07e4a7e41abb50e7f45e82a5a61800f83ed43664b0781ff2caee59 STONER 2005
pig studies
freeze-dried elderberry powder Generic food 0 Single dose 9 0.15 Detected (unquantified) WU 2005