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mean content min max SD n N number of references
 
Phenolic acids - Hydroxybenzoic acids - Protocatechuic acid
Alcoholic beverages
Beers Beer [Alcohol free] Graph 0.27 mg/100 ml 0.00 0.51 0.19 9 9 1
Beer [Ale] Graph 0.06 mg/100 ml 0.02 0.10 0.04 3 3 1
Beer [Dark] Graph 0.04 mg/100 ml 0.04 0.04 0.00 1 1 1
Beer [Regular] Graph 0.05 mg/100 ml 0.00 0.08 0.02 22 44 6
Liquors - Nut liquors Walnut, liquor Graph 0.52 mg/100 ml 0.36 0.74 0.17 4 4 1
Wines - Fortified Wines Sherry Graph 0.56 mg/100 ml 0.56 0.56 0.00 1 1 1
Wines - Grape wines Wine [Red] Graph 0.17 mg/100 ml 0.00 0.96 0.22 33 436 10
Wine [Rosé] Graph 0.26 mg/100 ml 0.24 0.26 0.01 2 5 2
Wine [White] Graph 0.33 mg/100 ml 1.00e-02 1.30 0.40 9 58 6
Wines - Sparkling wines Champagne Graph 0.03 mg/100 ml 1.00e-02 0.05 0.02 4 4 1
Cereals and cereal products
Cereals Maize, refined flour Graph 0.09 mg/100 g FW 0.09 0.09 0.00 1 1 1
Oat, refined flour Graph 0.04 mg/100 g FW 0.04 0.04 0.00 1 1 1
Sorghum, whole grain Graph 2.55 mg/100 g FW 0.70 7.93 2.16 16 16 1
Fruits and fruit products
Dried fruits - Dried berries Grape, raisin Graph 0.32 mg/100 g FW 0.00 0.68 0.34 3 3 1
Dried fruits - Dried other fruits Date, dried Graph 4.94 mg/100 g FW 0.00 8.34 4.38 3 3 1
Fruits - Citrus Grapefruit Graph 1.00e-02 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 1.00e-02 0.00 1 1 1
Fruits - Other fruits Date, fresh Graph 2.27 mg/100 g FW 0.00 4.49 2.25 3 3 1
Non-alcoholic beverages
Fruit juices - Berry juices Grape [Green], pure juice Graph 0.06 mg/100 ml 0.06 0.06 0.00 1 18 1
Sea-buckthornberry, pure juice Graph 0.25 mg/100 ml 0.21 0.29 0.06 2 2 1
Fruit juices - Pome juices Apple [Cider], juice from concentrate Graph 0.07 mg/100 ml 8.00e-03 0.10 0.04 6 6 1
Apple [Cider], pure juice Graph 0.03 mg/100 ml 0.00 0.07 0.03 8 8 2
Apple [Dessert], pure juice Graph 0.76 mg/100 ml 0.00 1.64 0.89 4 4 3
Fruit juices - Tropical fruit juices Kiwi, juice from concentrate Graph 0.02 mg/100 ml 0.02 0.02 0.00 1 1 1
Kiwi, pure juice Graph 0.02 mg/100 ml 0.02 0.02 0.00 3 3 1
Pomegranate, pure juice Graph 0.08 mg/100 ml 1.00e-02 0.20 0.06 13 13 1
Oils
Oils - Fruit vegetable oils Olive, oil, virgin Graph 0.15 mg/100 g FW 0.08 0.24 0.06 10 10 1
Seasonings
Other seasonings Vinegar Graph 0.81 mg/100 ml 0.00 1.62 0.55 21 95 2
Spices Cardamom Graph 1.00e-02 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 1.00e-02 0.00 1 1 1
Ceylan cinnamon Graph 1.16 mg/100 g FW 0.00 2.33 1.65 2 2 2
Cloves Graph 0.52 mg/100 g FW 0.00 1.05 0.74 2 2 2
Nutmeg Graph 0.01 mg/100 g FW 0.00 0.03 0.02 2 2 2
Star anise Graph 32.20 mg/100 g FW 32.20 32.20 0.00 1 1 1
Seeds
Nuts Almond Graph 0.26 mg/100 g FW 0.13 0.44 0.10 8 8 1
Pulses - Lentils Lentils, dehulled, raw Graph 0.07 mg/100 g FW 0.07 0.08 5.77e-03 4 4 1
Lentils, whole, raw Graph 0.14 mg/100 g FW 0.14 0.14 0.00 1 1 1
Vegetables
Cabbages Cauliflower, raw Graph 0.44 mg/100 g FW 0.43 0.45 0.01 2 2 1
Fruit vegetables Eggplant [Purple], whole, raw Graph 0.58 mg/100 g FW 0.36 0.97 0.34 3 3 1
Olive [Black], raw Graph 6.00 mg/100 g FW 0.00 21.00 7.75 6 6 2
Olive [Green], raw Graph 0.67 mg/100 g FW 0.00 2.00 1.15 3 3 2
Leaf vegetables Chicory [Green], raw Graph 21.79 mg/100 g FW 13.39 30.18 11.87 2 2 1
Chicory [Red], raw Graph 16.78 mg/100 g FW 11.24 25.71 5.29 6 6 1
Onion-family vegetables Onion [Red], raw Graph 2.00 mg/100 g FW 2.00 2.00 0.00 1 1 1
Onion [Yellow], raw Graph 1.00 mg/100 g FW 1.00 1.00 0.00 1 1 1
Shallot, raw Graph 1.00 mg/100 g FW 1.00 1.00 0.00 1 1 1
mean content min max SD n N number of references
 
Phenolic acids - Hydroxybenzoic acids - Protocatechuic acid
Alcoholic beverages
Wines - Grape wines Wine [Rosé] Graph 0.34 mg/100 ml 0.34 0.34 0.00 1 4 1
Cereals and cereal products
Cereal products Bread, rye, whole grain flour Graph 1.00 mg/100 g FW 1.00 1.00 0.00 1 4 1
Cereals Maize, refined flour Graph 0.25 mg/100 g FW 0.25 0.25 0.00 1 1 1
Oat, refined flour Graph 0.04 mg/100 g FW 0.04 0.04 0.00 1 1 1
Coffee and cocoa
Cocoa - Cocoa powders Cocoa, powder Graph 40.00 mg/100 g FW 40.00 40.00 0.00 1 1 1
Fruits and fruit products
Dried fruits - Dried other fruits Date, dried Graph 4.26 mg/100 g FW 0.00 8.34 4.17 3 3 1
Fruits - Berries Red raspberry, raw Graph 1.30 mg/100 g FW 1.30 1.30 0.00 1 8 1
Strawberry, raw Graph 0.40 mg/100 g FW 0.40 0.40 0.00 1 4 1
Fruits - Citrus Grapefruit Graph 0.04 mg/100 g FW 0.04 0.04 0.00 1 1 1
Fruits - Drupes Plum, fresh Graph 0.07 mg/100 g FW 0.06 0.08 9.57e-03 4 12 1
Fruits - Other fruits Date, fresh Graph 2.27 mg/100 g FW 0.00 4.49 2.25 3 3 1
Fruits - Pomes Apple [Dessert], whole, raw Graph 0.49 mg/100 g FW 0.49 0.49 0.00 1 5 1
Seasonings
Herbs Coriander, fresh Graph 2.20 mg/100 g FW 2.20 2.20 0.00 1 1 1
Fennel, fresh leaves Graph 0.11 mg/100 g FW 0.11 0.11 0.00 1 1 1
Fenugreek, fresh Graph 0.78 mg/100 g FW 0.78 0.78 0.00 1 1 1
Wild turnip tops, fresh Graph 0.60 mg/100 g FW 0.60 0.60 0.00 1 1 1
Spices Fenugreek seed Graph 7.95 mg/100 g FW 7.95 7.95 0.00 1 1 1
Vegetables
Fruit vegetables Eggplant [Purple], whole, raw Graph 1.15 mg/100 g FW 0.52 2.23 0.94 3 3 1
Olive [Black], raw Graph 58.50 mg/100 g FW 43.00 74.00 21.92 2 2 1
Leaf vegetables Swiss chard leaves [Red], raw Graph 5.40 mg/100 g FW 5.40 5.40 0.00 1 1 1
Swiss chard leaves [White], raw Graph 4.50 mg/100 g FW 4.50 4.50 0.00 1 1 1
Root vegetables Carrot, raw Graph 0.13 mg/100 g FW 0.13 0.13 0.00 1 4 1
Stalk vegetables Swiss chard stems [Red], raw Graph 0.30 mg/100 g FW 0.30 0.30 0.00 1 1 1
Swiss chard stems [White], raw Graph 1.70 mg/100 g FW 1.70 1.70 0.00 1 1 1