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mean content min max SD n N number of references
 
Lignans - Lignans - Secoisolariciresinol
Alcoholic beverages
Beers Beer [Dark] Graph 0.04 mg/100 g FW 0.03 0.06 0.02 2 6 1
Beer [Regular] Graph 0.03 mg/100 g FW 5.00e-04 0.05 0.04 2 6 1
Ciders Cider Graph 0.04 mg/100 g FW 0.04 0.04 0.00 1 3 1
Spirits - Whisky Scotch whisky Graph 4.00e-03 mg/100 g FW 4.00e-03 4.00e-03 0.00 1 3 1
Wines - Fortified Wines Sherry Graph 0.02 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 0.03 0.01 2 6 1
Wines - Grape wines Wine [Red] Graph 0.04 mg/100 ml 1.00e-02 0.06 0.01 11 17 2
Wine [White] Graph 7.45e-03 mg/100 ml 3.80e-03 1.00e-02 2.73e-03 5 11 2
Cereals and cereal products
Cereal products Bread, common wheat, whole grain flour Graph 8.68e-03 mg/100 g FW 2.80e-03 1.00e-02 3.40e-03 4 10 3
Bread, refined flour Graph 7.19e-03 mg/100 g FW 0.00 0.02 6.35e-03 9 21 4
Bread, rye, whole grain flour Graph 0.14 mg/100 g FW 0.02 1.15 0.49 5 11 3
Breakfast cereals, bran Graph 0.03 mg/100 g FW 3.00e-03 0.05 0.02 5 13 2
Breakfast cereals, corn Graph 5.50e-03 mg/100 g FW 5.00e-04 1.00e-02 4.77e-03 3 9 1
Breakfast cereals, muesli Graph 0.08 mg/100 g FW 7.00e-03 0.35 0.13 7 15 2
Breakfast cereals, oat, whole-meal Graph 0.02 mg/100 g FW 5.00e-03 0.04 0.02 3 9 1
Pasta Graph 2.30e-03 mg/100 g FW 5.00e-04 5.00e-03 1.80e-03 10 30 1
Pasta, whole grain Graph 5.00e-03 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-03 9.00e-03 3.52e-03 6 18 1
Cereals Barley, whole grain flour Graph 0.03 mg/100 g FW 0.03 0.03 0.00 1 1 1
Buckwheat, whole grain flour Graph 0.13 mg/100 g FW 0.13 0.13 0.00 1 1 1
Common wheat, germ Graph 0.02 mg/100 g FW 0.02 0.02 0.00 1 3 1
Common wheat, refined flour Graph 0.02 mg/100 g FW 0.00 0.03 0.02 3 7 2
Common wheat, whole grain flour Graph 0.02 mg/100 g FW 6.00e-03 0.03 0.01 3 5 3
Hard wheat, semolina Graph 2.00e-03 mg/100 g FW 2.00e-03 2.00e-03 0.00 1 3 1
Maize, whole grain Graph 0.14 mg/100 g FW 0.00 0.50 0.22 5 11 5
Oat, rolled Graph 4.00e-03 mg/100 g FW 4.00e-03 4.00e-03 0.00 1 3 1
Oat, whole grain flour Graph 1.00e-02 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 1.00e-02 0.00 1 1 1
Rye, whole grain flour Graph 0.02 mg/100 g FW 0.02 0.03 5.77e-03 4 4 2
Coffee and cocoa
Cocoa - Cocoa powders Cocoa, powder Graph 0.03 mg/100 g FW 0.03 0.03 0.00 1 1 1
Fruits and fruit products
Dried fruits - Dried berries Grape, raisin Graph 0.32 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 0.90 0.45 5 17 3
Dried fruits - Dried drupes Apricot, dried Graph 0.38 mg/100 g FW 0.14 0.43 0.21 2 6 2
Plum, prune Graph 0.27 mg/100 g FW 0.27 0.27 0.00 1 5 1
Dried fruits - Dried other fruits Date, dried Graph 0.50 mg/100 g FW 0.10 0.58 0.34 2 6 2
Fig, dried Graph 0.11 mg/100 g FW 0.11 0.11 0.00 1 5 1
Fruits - Berries Bilberry, raw Graph 0.06 mg/100 g FW 0.06 0.06 0.00 1 1 1
Blackberry, raw Graph 0.10 mg/100 g FW 0.05 0.34 0.21 2 6 2
Blackcurrant, raw Graph 0.09 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 0.10 0.04 4 8 4
Cloudberry Graph 0.05 mg/100 g FW 0.05 0.05 0.00 1 1 1
Gooseberry Graph 0.07 mg/100 g FW 0.07 0.08 7.07e-03 2 6 2
Grape [Black] Graph 0.09 mg/100 g FW 6.27e-03 0.40 0.18 5 15 3
Grape [Green] Graph 0.28 mg/100 g FW 1.60e-03 1.00 0.45 5 11 5
Lingonberry, raw Graph 0.37 mg/100 g FW 0.37 0.37 0.00 1 1 1
Redcurrant, raw Graph 0.04 mg/100 g FW 0.04 0.04 0.00 1 5 1
Strawberry, raw Graph 0.14 mg/100 g FW 5.10e-03 0.50 0.20 6 12 6
Fruits - Citrus Grapefruit Graph 0.26 mg/100 g FW 2.30e-03 0.90 0.40 5 11 5
Lemon Graph 0.02 mg/100 g FW 0.02 0.02 0.00 1 5 1
Orange [Blond] Graph 0.14 mg/100 g FW 2.50e-03 0.50 0.20 6 12 5
Tangerine Graph 0.08 mg/100 g FW 5.00e-03 0.30 0.17 3 13 2
Fruits - Drupes Apricot, raw Graph 1.07 mg/100 g FW 0.05 3.10 1.76 3 9 3
Nectarine, whole Graph 0.61 mg/100 g FW 0.02 1.80 1.02 3 9 3
Peach, peeled Graph 1.00e-02 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 1.00e-02 0.00 2 2 1
Peach, whole Graph 0.83 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 2.70 1.34 4 10 4
Plum, fresh Graph 0.09 mg/100 g FW 4.81e-03 0.40 0.13 8 26 4
Fruits - Gourds Cantaloupe Graph 4.70e-03 mg/100 g FW 4.70e-03 4.70e-03 0.00 1 1 1
Melon Graph 0.09 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 0.50 0.22 5 19 3
Watermelon Graph 0.02 mg/100 g FW 1.40e-03 0.03 0.01 5 9 4
Fruits - Other fruits Date, fresh Graph 0.16 mg/100 g FW 0.15 0.16 7.07e-03 2 10 1
Fig, whole, fresh Graph 0.37 mg/100 g FW 0.37 0.37 0.00 1 5 1
Fruits - Pomes Apple [Dessert], peeled Graph 1.38e-03 mg/100 g FW 0.00 2.08e-03 8.36e-04 10 30 3
Apple [Dessert], whole, raw Graph 1.79e-03 mg/100 g FW 0.00 3.00e-03 9.70e-04 11 31 3
Pear, peeled Graph 3.11e-03 mg/100 g FW 0.00 7.00e-03 2.95e-03 6 18 3
Pear, whole Graph 0.06 mg/100 g FW 0.00 0.40 0.16 6 20 4
Fruits - Stalk vegetables Rhubarb, raw Graph 1.00e-05 mg/100 g FW 0.00 6.00e-05 4.24e-05 2 6 2
Fruits - Tropical fruits Banana, raw Graph 7.73e-05 mg/100 g FW 0.00 6.00e-04 2.64e-04 5 11 5
Kiwi Graph 3.13 mg/100 g FW 0.10 11.20 4.96 5 11 5
Mango Graph 1.00e-02 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 1.00e-02 0.00 2 6 2
Passion fruit Graph 0.02 mg/100 g FW 0.02 0.02 0.00 1 5 1
Persimmon, fresh Graph 4.00e-03 mg/100 g FW 4.00e-03 4.00e-03 0.00 1 5 1
Pineapple Graph 0.21 mg/100 g FW 2.00e-03 0.70 0.35 4 10 4
Pomegranate Graph 0.29 mg/100 g FW 0.29 0.29 0.00 1 5 1
Jams - Pome jams Quince, jam Graph 6.00e-03 mg/100 g FW 6.00e-03 6.00e-03 0.00 1 5 1
Non-alcoholic beverages
Coffee beverage - Unknown Coffee beverages Coffee beverage [Filter] Graph 8.67e-03 mg/100 g FW 4.70e-03 1.00e-02 3.75e-03 2 4 2
Coffee beverage [Filter], decaffeinated Graph 8.35e-03 mg/100 g FW 3.40e-03 1.00e-02 4.67e-03 2 4 2
Fruit juices - Citrus juices Lemon, pure juice Graph 2.00e-03 mg/100 g FW 2.00e-03 2.00e-03 0.00 1 5 1
Orange [Blond], pure juice Graph 8.00e-03 mg/100 g FW 8.00e-03 8.00e-03 0.00 1 1 1
Herb infusions Roman camomile, tea Graph 1.00e-03 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-03 1.00e-03 0.00 1 3 1
Soy drinks Soy, milk Graph 2.25e-03 mg/100 ml 1.10e-03 5.70e-03 3.25e-03 2 4 2
Tea infusions Tea [Black], infusion Graph 0.03 mg/100 ml 0.02 0.04 8.94e-03 5 5 1
Tea [Green], infusion Graph 0.03 mg/100 ml 1.00e-02 0.05 0.02 6 6 1
Tea [Oolong], infusion Graph 0.02 mg/100 ml 0.02 0.02 0.00 1 1 1
Oils
Oils - Fruit vegetable oils Olive, oil, extra virgin Graph 2.50e-04 mg/100 g FW 0.00 1.00e-03 7.07e-04 2 4 2
Oils - Nut oils Peanut, butter Graph 0.05 mg/100 g FW 0.02 0.06 0.03 2 4 2
Oils - Other seed oils Rape seed, oil Graph 0.04 mg/100 g FW 0.04 0.04 0.00 1 3 1
Seasonings
Herbs Garlic, fresh Graph 1.55 mg/100 g FW 0.04 5.00 2.47 4 10 4
Oregano, dried (wild marjoram) Graph 0.04 mg/100 g FW 0.04 0.04 0.00 1 1 1
Parsley, fresh Graph 0.13 mg/100 g FW 0.13 0.13 0.00 1 5 1
Sweet basil, dried Graph 0.54 mg/100 g FW 0.54 0.54 0.00 1 1 1
Watercress, fresh Graph 0.03 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 0.07 0.03 4 12 3
Welsh onion, fresh Graph 0.05 mg/100 g FW 0.05 0.06 7.07e-03 2 6 2
Other seasonings Soy sauce Graph 1.00e-02 mg/100 ml 1.00e-02 1.00e-02 0.00 1 1 1
Spices Capers Graph 0.04 mg/100 g FW 0.04 0.04 0.00 1 1 1
Ginger, fresh Graph 0.02 mg/100 g FW 0.02 0.02 0.00 1 1 1
Horseradish, dried Graph 1.00e-02 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 1.00e-02 0.00 1 1 1
Seeds
Nuts Almond Graph 0.07 mg/100 g FW 0.07 0.07 0.00 1 1 1
Almond, dehulled Graph 0.08 mg/100 g FW 0.08 0.08 0.00 1 3 1
Brazil nut Graph 0.77 mg/100 g FW 0.77 0.77 0.00 1 3 1
Cashew nut, raw Graph 6.73 mg/100 g FW 0.16 13.30 9.29 2 6 2
Chestnut, raw Graph 0.20 mg/100 g FW 0.17 0.20 0.02 2 6 2
Hazelnut, raw Graph 0.05 mg/100 g FW 0.05 0.06 7.07e-03 2 4 2
Peanut Graph 2.70 mg/100 g FW 0.09 5.30 3.68 2 6 2
Peanut, dehulled, roasted Graph 0.02 mg/100 g FW 0.02 0.02 0.00 1 1 1
Peanut, roasted Graph 0.16 mg/100 g FW 0.07 0.25 0.13 2 6 1
Pecan nut Graph 1.00e-02 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 1.00e-02 0.00 2 4 2
Pines Graph 0.04 mg/100 g FW 0.04 0.04 0.00 1 3 1
Pistachio Graph 0.04 mg/100 g FW 0.04 0.04 0.00 1 1 1
Walnut Graph 0.12 mg/100 g FW 0.07 0.14 0.05 2 4 2
Other seeds Flaxseed, meal Graph 257.60 mg/100 g FW 81.70 323.67 132.02 3 5 3
Sesame seed, meal Graph 0.10 mg/100 g FW 0.06 0.24 0.13 2 4 2
Sunflower seed, meal Graph 0.18 mg/100 g FW 0.05 0.58 0.37 2 4 2
Pulses - Beans - Common bean Common bean [Others], whole, raw Graph 0.08 mg/100 g FW 0.06 0.08 0.01 2 6 2
Common bean [White], whole, raw Graph 0.12 mg/100 g FW 0.10 0.14 0.03 2 10 1
Pulses - Beans - Other beans Broad bean seed, whole, raw Graph 0.09 mg/100 g FW 0.09 0.09 0.00 1 1 1
Mung bean, whole, raw Graph 0.18 mg/100 g FW 0.08 0.28 0.14 2 10 1
Soy and soy products Soy paste, miso Graph 1.00e-02 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 1.00e-02 0.00 1 1 1
Soy, bacon bits Graph 0.03 mg/100 g FW 0.03 0.03 0.00 1 1 1
Soy, burger, raw Graph 1.00e-02 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 1.00e-02 0.00 1 1 1
Soy, flour Graph 0.30 mg/100 g FW 0.13 0.33 0.14 2 6 2
Soy, tempe Graph 1.00e-02 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 1.00e-02 0.00 1 1 1
Soy, tofu Graph 9.91e-03 mg/100 g FW 9.00e-03 1.00e-02 4.47e-04 5 11 4
Soy, yogurt Graph 0.02 mg/100 g FW 0.02 0.02 0.00 1 1 1
Soybean, edamame Graph 0.07 mg/100 g FW 0.06 0.08 0.01 2 2 1
Soybean, roasted Graph 0.01 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 0.03 0.01 2 6 2
Soybean, sprout, raw Graph 0.03 mg/100 g FW 9.00e-04 0.05 0.03 2 2 2
Vegetables
Cabbages Broccoli, raw Graph 1.31 mg/100 g FW 0.06 3.80 2.16 3 9 3
Brussel sprouts, raw Graph 1.06 mg/100 g FW 0.02 3.40 1.68 4 10 4
Cauliflower, raw Graph 0.13 mg/100 g FW 5.00e-03 0.40 0.20 4 10 4
Collards, raw Graph 5.90e-03 mg/100 g FW 5.90e-03 5.90e-03 0.00 1 1 1
Common cabbage [Green], raw Graph 9.20e-03 mg/100 g FW 2.60e-03 1.00e-02 3.49e-03 4 12 3
Common cabbage [Red], raw Graph 0.30 mg/100 g FW 5.00e-03 0.90 0.52 3 9 3
Common cabbage [White], raw Graph 0.31 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 0.80 0.56 2 8 2
Kale [Curly], raw Graph 1.90 mg/100 g FW 1.90 1.90 0.00 1 3 1
Sauerkraut Graph 6.70 mg/100 g FW 6.70 6.70 0.00 1 3 1
Savoy cabbage, raw Graph 0.02 mg/100 g FW 0.02 0.02 0.00 2 6 2
Fruit vegetables Avocado, raw Graph 0.02 mg/100 g FW 0.02 0.04 0.01 2 6 2
Eggplant [Purple], whole, raw Graph 7.79e-03 mg/100 g FW 5.00e-03 9.28e-03 1.82e-03 4 8 4
Olive [Black], raw Graph 5.75e-03 mg/100 g FW 5.00e-03 7.00e-03 1.41e-03 2 8 2
Olive [Green], raw Graph 0.02 mg/100 g FW 0.02 0.03 5.77e-03 3 9 3
Sweet pepper [Green], raw Graph 0.22 mg/100 g FW 4.68e-03 0.70 0.35 4 10 4
Sweet pepper [Red], raw Graph 0.24 mg/100 g FW 9.00e-03 0.70 0.40 3 9 3
Sweet pepper [Yellow], raw Graph 5.50e-03 mg/100 g FW 5.00e-03 8.00e-03 2.12e-03 2 6 2
Tomato [Cherry], whole, raw Graph 1.00e-02 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 1.00e-02 0.00 2 2 1
Tomato, whole, raw Graph 0.05 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-03 0.20 0.08 6 12 6
Gourds Cucumber, raw Graph 0.25 mg/100 g FW 2.00e-03 0.80 0.39 4 10 4
Pumpkin, raw Graph 0.10 mg/100 g FW 9.00e-04 0.15 0.07 4 8 3
Squash, raw Graph 9.00e-03 mg/100 g FW 9.00e-03 9.00e-03 0.00 1 5 1
Zucchini, raw Graph 0.62 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 1.80 1.03 3 9 3
Leaf vegetables Arugula, raw Graph 0.10 mg/100 g FW 0.10 0.10 0.00 1 1 1
Chicory [Green], raw Graph 0.57 mg/100 g FW 1.00e-02 1.70 0.97 3 9 3
Lettuce [Green], raw Graph 0.18 mg/100 g FW 4.00e-03 0.90 0.37 9 29 4
Spinach, raw Graph 4.85e-03 mg/100 g FW 1.30e-03 8.00e-03 2.74e-03 4 8 4
Swiss chard leaves [White], raw Graph 8.20e-03 mg/100 g FW 8.20e-03 8.20e-03 0.00 1 1 1
Pod vegetables Broad bean pod, raw Graph 0.02 mg/100 g FW 0.02 0.02 0.00 1 5 1
Green bean, raw Graph 0.67 mg/100 g FW 0.02 2.90 1.42 4 14 3
Pulse vegetables Fresh pea, raw Graph 7.56e-04 mg/100 g FW 0.00 1.05e-03 5.92e-04 4 8 3
Root vegetables Carrot, raw Graph 3.16 mg/100 g FW 4.10e-03 9.30 5.34 3 9 3
Celeriac, raw Graph 0.02 mg/100 g FW 9.90e-03 0.03 9.60e-03 4 12 3
Parsnip, raw Graph 0.03 mg/100 g FW 0.03 0.03 0.00 2 6 2
Radish, raw Graph 6.57e-03 mg/100 g FW 0.00 0.04 0.02 5 9 4
Red beetroot, raw Graph 7.08e-03 mg/100 g FW 7.08e-03 7.08e-03 0.00 1 1 1
Swede, raw Graph 4.93e-03 mg/100 g FW 3.70e-03 5.83e-03 1.07e-03 3 7 3
Turnip root, raw Graph 9.83e-03 mg/100 g FW 9.00e-03 1.00e-02 7.07e-04 2 6 2
Shoot vegetables Asparagus, raw Graph 0.25 mg/100 g FW 0.02 0.74 0.33 4 4 3
Fennel Graph 0.05 mg/100 g FW 0.05 0.05 0.00 1 5 1
Stalk vegetables Celery stalks, raw Graph 5.99e-03 mg/100 g FW 5.95e-03 6.00e-03 3.54e-05 2 6 2
Tubers Potato, raw Graph 0.09 mg/100 g FW 0.00 0.40 0.23 3 13 2
Sweet potato, raw Graph 0.12 mg/100 g FW 0.06 0.13 0.04 3 7 3